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Early working of native copper usually involved hammering the copper into a sheet, then rolling the sheet copper up to make beads, hooks or awls (points).

Copper is best heated (annealed) to make it less brittle after it’s been hammered.

While this article discusses four different metals, its major focus is on copper.

Copper can be alloyed with many other elements, but two are significant historically.A discussion of copper, lead, gold and silver artefacts in the Old World, their origins and distribution from the Neolithic up to the time of the earliest smelting in the Chalcolithic or Copper age…and a discussion of where copper and lead smelting originated.water, sulphur dioxide or carbon dioxide) and leave copper oxide.This oxide ‘charge’ can then be ‘smelted’ at high temperatures (at least 700ºC and in reality much higher) in a crucible to produce impure copper.

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